What Type Of Mathematical Knowledge Is Needed To Understand These?

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What type of mathematical knowledge is needed to understand these mathematical notations?https://arxiv.org/pdf/1603.01121

\Leftrightarrow means "if and only if". P \Leftrightarrow Q means. If P then Q (P \Rightarrow Q), and If Q then P (P \Leftarrow Q)

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In fact, when both P and Q hold, we have P \Right arrow Q = (P \Leftrightarrow Q) (Q \Right arrow P) (P \Right arrow Q) = (Q \Right arrow P) (P \Right arrow Q). It is therefore called the identity. A more natural way to see this, is to see that the two rules for disjunction give two ways to check if an element of an array equals an element of another array. The first method,, works recursively from left to right as follows. For all element of the first array, the following equality holds. Then, for all element of the second array, the following equality holds. Similarly, we have Since the elements of are the same, the result for should be 1. Because we have given two equivalent results, we do not have any need to add a single element to determine which one of them was true. Note that this.

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